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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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KHASSX (WAR).

are,--

Singular.                                          Plural.

1st Person      nga} ngea ma} o, &                   ei, i.

2nd Person     em, ym, *m                             eM, M.

3rd Person      ew> 0, U<                                ' Se i.

As regards the pronouns of the first person, nga is probably a sBp of the pen by a
writer accustomed to Standard Khassi for nge.   Similarly, a, which occurs only once, and
there means me (let me make merry with my friends), is evidently either a mistake for, or
a by-form of, o,   0 and i both occur in Synteng under the forms o and i For the second
person, em and ym are evidently different ways of spelling (and perhaps pronouncing)
the same word.   The contracted form, 'm, is very commons and has become a suffix
meaning * thy ', as in jpa-'m, written pa'm, thy father.   As regards the third person, in
every case in which 'ie occurs as a singular pronoun in the specimens, it is translated ' it '.
It is probably a neuter pronoun, a contraction of i-ew.   On the other hand, however, the
plural form ie, when it occurs in tjie specimens, always refers to human beings, and
means * them ' (ei-'ie, to them).   It also may be a contraction of i~ew (i being in this case
the plural prefix).
The Demonstrative Pronouns which I have noted are v,-rie, this, and tt-te} that.
The ' article,' of course, changes according to gender. In ti te i bun m, in that small
house, the article is not prefixed to the pronominal termination.
The Belative Pronoun is -a, ka-a, i-a pi. U~a or i-a, corresponding to the
Standard u-ba, etc. A is sometimes written ?#, thus, u-wa. After i it is sometimes
written ia, as in i-ia, ki-ia.
The Interrogative Pronoun is ai, to which the appropriate article is prefixed
according to gender.
VEEBS,  The words meaning * to be ' are man and aL The latter is the equivalent
of the Standard don and also means ' to have '. Te is also used to mean * was ', but in
the specimens it only occurs with the negative pong.
The Present Tense is formed by prefixing a to the root. Thus, a-man o, I am ;
a-sympat 'm, thou strikest. Compare the Synteng prefix wa> As already pointed out, the
pronoun of the subject usually follows the verb. The a, is sometimes omitted, so that we
have the bare root as in the Standard dialect. Thus, em Vra, "beh ah be nia> thou who
always art with me.
The Past Tense takes the prefix da or de, as in da chob nge, I struck ; d& pyn-lang,
collected ; da duk, became poor ; de pyn-M, spent. Synteng also has da.
Instead of da, we also find a, as ia a-ah w ti ka-laM^ he was in the field ; a*ai
khawai u-pa ym, gave feast the father of-thee, thy father gave a feast. Ina-da-wan u-bo*
*i, hath-oome the brother of thee, thy brother hath come, we have both a and da to
form the perfect. A is said to be the equivalent of the Standard la.
Often the prefix is omitted in this tense, as in lia-nt lie went (to a far country).
The Enture Tense is formed by prefixing /, as in jo sympat nge, I shall strike.
So we have ju zeng nge, I will stand ; jit Ud nge, I will go. Compare Synteng n.
The Infinitive Mood is formed by the same prefix. Thus, hyng-eh tang jit-bat
difficult even to eat ; ju M Jwn*m, to call thy son ; ju-wan, to come (into the house),